In December, the International Olympic Committee had held out the prospect of lifting Russia's suspension for the closing ceremony, on the condition its athletes met a strict code of conduct, including compliance with anti-doping rules and observance of athlete neutrality.
IOC President Thomas Bach said a condition of Russia's ban being lifted is that no further positive drug tests come out of Pyeongchang. They have been competing in South Korea under a neutral flag under the name "Olympic Athletes from Russian Federation".
The International Olympic Committee on Sunday decided not to lift its ban of Russia's Olympic team over doping allegations, meaning that the country will not be able to march in the closing ceremony under its own flag.
Russian Federation was banned from the Olympics on December 5 because of widespread doping at the 2014 Sochi Games.
It was initially believed that Russia's Olympic Committee would be reinstated by the IOC for the closing ceremony, even after curler Aleksandr Krushelnitcky was caught using the banned substance meldonium and stripped of the mixed-doubles bronze.
The IOC did invite Russian athletes to Pyeongchang who had met specific criteria and been rigorously tested prior to the Games. However, two athletes failed doping tests here in PyeongChang.
"Despite a good collaboration from the OAR delegation to respond to these (doping) cases in a prompt and transparent way, the implementation group was convinced that these cases caused significant concern", said Hoevertsz, who is from Aruba.
"As we've got two doping cases I don't think they will allow us to be at the closing with the flag", alpine skier Anastasia Silanteva told Reuters. "It's essentially a Korean problem", the official added.
"By failing to impose a meaningful sanction on [Russia's Olympic committee], the IOC would be culpable in this effort to defraud clean athletes of the world", the institute wrote.
The Washington Post's Ellen Nakashima reported on Saturday evening that the GRU, Russia's military intelligence agency, accessed as many as 300 Olympics-related computers earlier this month, according to two United States officials.
Letting them do so would be the IOC's "worst decision", he said. The same hackers did something similar in the 2016 Summer Games in Rio de Janeiro, when they released the drug testing files for multiple athletes, including tennis player Serena Williams and gymnast Simone Biles.
On Saturday, a Russian delegation made a final pitch to the IOC Saturday to allow them to march behind the Russian flag. They have been unable to wear national uniforms or have the Russian anthem played at medal ceremonies.
They did so while trying to make it appear as though the intrusion was conducted by North Korea, what is known as a "false-flag" operation, said two US officials who spoke on the condition of anonymity to discuss a sensitive matter.