More than two-thirds of Republicans in the Senate voted for the spending package early Friday morning after Sen. On the Senate floor, North Carolina Republican Thom Tillis tried to convince Paul to stop his filibuster.
The sweeping spending bill ended the seconf government shutdown in less than a month.
Top Republicans - including House Speaker Paul Ryan and House Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy - asserted they are committed to working with members across the aisle on finding a DACA solution.
The Senate is likely to vote to reopen the government in the wee hours Friday.
But House Democrats' whip against the bipartisan budget deal was all over the place on Thursday.
At about 2:00 a.m. today the Senate approved a budget deal.
The latest deal would raise spending caps by about $300bn (£215bn) - something which Senator Paul insisted he could not support. Those conservatives were mainly angry about non-military spending increases.
In a doom-laden speech, Senator Paul angrily charged his fellow Republicans with fiscal profligacy. Both Republican Senate Leader Mitch McConnell and Democratic Leader Chuck Schumer said they were unwilling to compromise with Paul.
"Sadly, we needed some Democrats votes for passage".
"I can't in all good honesty, in all good faith, just look the other way just because my party is now complicit in the deficits". "Isn't that the very definition of intellectual dishonesty?" the libertarian senator said. Trump is set to unveil his full infrastructure plan next week.
The White House kept its distance from the quarreling on Capitol Hill.
House GOP leaders shored up support among conservatives for the measure, which would shower the Pentagon with money but add hundreds of billions of dollars to the nation's $20 trillion-plus debt. Funding for the Children's Health Insurance Program was also authorized for four additional years, and it included language extending a number of tax breaks for one year.
Why are some Democrats unhappy?
The budget package which was combined with the short-term spending bill is expected to pass the Senate early Friday, despite Paul's opposition, according to media reports.
House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi said she would oppose the deal because it does not include protections for the Dreamers, young undocumented migrants brought to the U.S. as children.
The measure does not include anything about the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) immigration program, which protects from deportation numerous almost 800,000 immigrants brought to the United States illegally by their parents as children.
The funds generally come from an increase in customs and immigration fees.
Another US government shutdown became official at midnight Eastern time, but it might be over by morning.
House Speaker Brian Bosma, R-Indianapolis, said in a February 6 statement he thought House Republicans' priorities made great progress, especially on issues such as increased funding for K-12 schools, a strengthened workforce, the opioid epidemic and increased government efficiency.