IL had the largest numeric decline, losing 33,703 people (this was a relatively small percentage change compared to its population of 12.8 million).
The U.S. territory Puerto Rico lost more than 69,000 residents past year and filed for the equivalent of federal bankruptcy protection in May.
Overall payroll employment during the period shrunk by 3,600 people, or 1.3 percent, which was the worst in the nation.
If trends continue, the state could find itself in a downward spiral, Harger says, though he doesn't believe IL has reached that point yet.
Its population increased 2.2% to 1.7 million from July 1, 2016, to July 1, 2017.
States in the South and West continued to lead in population growth, as 38 percent of the nation's population lived in the South and 23.8 percent lived in the West in 2017, a census press release said.
Overall, the US population grew by 0.7 percent from July 1, 2016, to July 1, 2017 - to 325.7 million people.
In a statement, Liz Schuh, principal policy analyst for the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for planning, said that while the narrow window of the study can be misleading, "Census data over several years does indicate stagnant or even declining population for our region and state". But those gains weren't enough to offset the outflow of people to other states.
Natural increase has accounted for the majority of Kentucky's population growth since 2010, but migration from overseas has also been an important component of population change. Although there are approximately 10,000 more births than deaths in the state each year, this difference has, on average, been declining over the past several years. For domestic numbers, MA saw a loss of 23,000 residents moving to other states.
Idaho was the nation's fastest-growing state over the previous year.
Idaho had the highest rate of growth, at 2.2 percent.
Other states in the West - Nevada, Utah and Washington - saw similar percentage increases in their population.
Texas' population grew by almost 400,000 people, the biggest numerical gain in the country.
Pennsylvania remains behind California, Texas, Florida and NY in total population. That puts it at a record above 12.8 million people. But Connecticut attracted some 17,000 people from other countries, a little more than a third of the number for MA.