The deployment of THAAD was agreed upon between the USA and South Korea a year ago, but has been delayed due to environmental impact assessments and diplomatic issues.
Ahead of the meeting with Mr Putin, he said the situation could get out of hand if North Korea's missile and nuclear tests are not stopped.
Guam, a major USA military hub in the Pacific, is home to roughly 160,000 American citizens, and was recently added to the list of places North Korea is threatening to bomb.
The THAAD systems will be deployed on Thursday at a new base in Seongju, 300 kilometers (186 miles) from Seoul, the Yonhap agency reported, citing the Ministry of National Defense, Sputnik reported.
NATO ambassadors said after talks in Brussels on Wednesday that "it is now imperative that all nations implement more thoroughly and transparently existing U.N. sanctions" against the North.
Trump's empty threats on North Korea have gagged the US
South Korean Defense Minister Song Young-moo is encouraging the USA to regularly deploy "strategy assets", like aircraft carriers and nuclear bombers in the country.
"Let our potential adversaries take pause and note that the only naval force more powerful than the U.S. Pacific Fleet is the entirety of the United States Navy", he said. Local residents oppose the deployment, claiming the battery could turn the village into a military target and that electromagnetic waves from the THAAD radar could cause health and environmental problems.
In a conversation with South Korea's Defense Minister Song Young-Moo Tuesday to address North Korea's latest and most powerful nuclear test to date, Mattis said the United States "remains ironclad in its commitment to the defense of" South Korea.
Russian Federation and China are concerned over the deployment of these systems in the area.
"Myself and President Putin share a view that North Korea has gone the wrong way with its nuclear and missile programme and that easing tension on the Korean peninsula is an urgent issue", Mr Moon said. The North says it detonated a hydrogen bomb in its sixth nuclear test on Sunday.