The show is about two California couples getting together for dinner and to watch a meteor shower, and the ensuing chaos and marital discord that then follow.
Joining Schumer will be fellow Broadway newcomer Keegan-Michael Key, as well as Laura Benanti and Alan Tudyk.
The show has run previously in San Diego and New Haven, but the addition of Schumer and Key gave it the star-power it needed to push it through to NY.
The Trainwreck actress wrote: '#SteveMartin wrote a hilarious play @MeteorShowerBwy and I get to do it with @keeganmic @laurabenanti @alantudyk'.
The play, directed by Jerry Zaks ("Hello, Dolly!), is to begin previews November 1 and open November 29 at the Booth Theater".
Meteor Shower premiered past year at the Old Globe Theatre in San Diego, starring Jenna Fischer of The Office and Ally McBeal's Greg Germann in Schumer and Tudyk's roles, and was followed by a four-week co-production at the Long Wharf Theatre in New Haven, Connecticut.
The comic, 36, confirmed on Instagram on Monday that she will tread the boards in Steve Martin's Meteor Shower.
'A meteor shower actually came to me first, ' the actor, 71, said.
Opening night is set for November 29th at Broadway's Booth Theatre, with previews beginning November 1st.
Meteor Shower premiered last fall at San Diego's Old Globe, where it set the theater's all-time sales record and had Jenna Fischer (The Office) in the headlining role.
Meanwhile, Amy is now shooting a new comedy called "I Feel Pretty", having also completed work on "She Came to Me" starring Nicole Kidman and Steve Carell and the military biopic "Thank You for Your Service".